Shield volcano 1640 m / 5,381 ft
Isabela Island, Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), -0.92°S / -91.41°W
Cerro Azul volcano eruptions: 1850, 1932, 1940, 1943, 1948, 1949(?), 1951, 1959, 1968(?), 1979, 1998, 2008
Cerro Azul volcano a basaltic shield volcano on the SW part of Isabela Island in the Galápagos Islands. It has the same name as Cerro Azul volcano in Chile, meaning “Blue Mountain” in Spanish.
Cerro Azul is one of the most active volcanoes of the Galapagos hot spot.
Cerro Azul, 1640 m high and the second highest peak of the Galápagos archipelago, is a typical shield volcano located at the SW tip of Isabela Island. It is one of the most active volcanoes of the Galapagos, although historic records from its activity only dates back to 1932.
As most of the other shield volcanoes on the Galapagos island, it has a steep-walled 4 x 5 km nested summit caldera, one of the smallest diameter, but at 650 m one of the deepest in the Galápagos Islands. Young lava lows cover most of the floor of the caldera, where temporary lava lakes are sometimes present during summit eruptions. Numerous spatter cones from lateral fissure eruptions dot the western flanks of the volcano.
Shield volcano 1476 m / 4,842 ft
Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, -0.37°S / -91.55°W
Fernandina volcano eruptions: 2009
Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic “overturned soup bowl” profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 cu km section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake.
Shield volcano 1710 m.
Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, 0.02°N / -91.35°W
Wolf volcano eruptions: 2015, 1982, 1797
A 6 x 7 km caldera, at 700 m one of the deepest of the Galápagos Islands, is located at the volcano’s summit. A prominent bench on the west side of the caldera rises 450 above the caldera floor, much of which is covered by a lava flow erupted in 1982.
Radial fissures concentrated along diffuse rift zones extend down the north, NW, and SE flanks, and submarine vents lie beyond the north and NW fissures. Similar unvegetated flows originating from a circumferential chain of spatter and scoria cones on the eastern caldera rim drape the forested flanks of the volcano to the sea. The proportion of aa lava flows at Volcán Wolf exceeds that of other Galápagos volcanoes. Wolf’s 1797 eruption was the first documented historical eruption in the Galápagos Islands.
Etna’s eruptions have been documented since 1500 BC, when phreatomagmatic eruptions drove people living in the eastern part of the island to migrate to its western end. The volcano has experienced more than 200 eruptions since then, although most are moderately small. Historic eruptions are recorded for the year 479 B.C., 1329, 1381 and 1536, one of the largest and most destructive eruptions was a flank eruption in March to July 1669 from near the village of Nicolosi (800m a.s.l.) which produced the cinder cone Monti Rossi and a 14km long lava flow which, despite it was partially deviated from its path by a artificial dam, destroyed part of the city of Catania, obstructed the harbour and caused victims.
Cinder cones on Etna erupted again in 1763, 1811, 1852, 1865, 1879 and 1892. In the 20th century, concentrated on two main branches extending from the crest, lava erupted in 1908, 1910, 1911, 1918, 1923, 1928, 1942, 1947, 1949 and 1950-1951, 1964, 1968, 1971, 1981, 1983, 1989 and 1991 (the most voluminous eruption since 1669) to 1993.
The activity continues in the 21th century, from 2001 Etna is more or less active (in 2002 and 2003 the volcano produced spectacular ash plumes), weaker since 2008 now the activity increased again since 12 January 2011.